zakat in islam is the third pillar of Islam after the two testimonies and prayer, and its obligation is proven in the Book, the Sunnah, and consensus. From the Noble Qur’an, God Almighty says: (And give zakat), and as for the Sunnah, it is part of the hadith of the Prophet – upon him be the best, peace and blessings be upon him: That God enjoined upon them a charity that is to be taken from the rich and given to the poor of them.
And the obstacle to zakat in islam is punishment in this world and the hereafter, and it was imposed by God – Glory be to Him – in the month of Shawwal of the second year of the Hijrah, and it is not obligatory for the prophets; Because God – the Most High – imposed it for purity from impurity and sins, and the prophets are free from that, and what is in their hands of money is not their property, but rather it is a deposit of God – Glory be to Him – with them.
Conditions for the obligation of zakat
The obligation of zakat in islam on money has many conditions, and they are as follows:
1- Freedom, for zakat in islam is not obligatory for the slave; for not owning it.
2- Islam; zakat in islam is not obligatory for a non-Muslim.
3- Reason and puberty.
4- Reaching the nisab, which is the amount determined by Sharia that zakat is obligatory upon reaching it, and any amount less than it is not obligatory for zakat, and it must be one of the categories for which zakat is obligatory, and each of them will be explained in the subsequent paragraphs of the article.
5- Full ownership and ability to dispose of money; Because zakat in islam is the ownership of money for those who deserve it, and ownership is a branch of ownership, and this condition has been indicated by many verses, such as God Almighty’s saying: (In their wealth there is a known right); God – Glory be to Him – has added money to its owner.
6- growth; And that is that money is growing, such as gold, silver and trade offers.
7- The turn of the year, which is the passing of a lunar year since the money has reached the quorum, and this condition is not related to crops.
8- Being free from religion.
9- Excess of basic needs, which is what a person pays for himself, such as alimony, housing, and so on.
Money for which zakat is due
Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, enjoined zakat in islam in many forms, and they are as follows:
- The two coins are gold and silver, zakat in islam is due on this money, whether it is bullion or coined, or in the form of vessels. The nisab for gold is twenty Mithqal. As for silver, it is two hundred dirhams. Zakat is due in the amount of a quarter of a tenth. That is, 2.50%, and the Hanafis went to the point that the lesson in both of them is mostly, and if the majority of them are cheating, they are in the ruling of trade offers, and the Malikis considered the lesson in its popularity and use, and the Shafi’is and Hanbalis went to the fact that there is nothing in fraud, but zakat must be paid on what was pure of it, and as for what was wearer of jewelry; The public is of the view that zakat is not obligatory on it, and the Hanbalis believe that zakat is obligatory on jewelry taken for trade, and the Hanafis required zakat on women’s jewelry of gold or silver.
- Zakat on crops and fruits, zakat in islam is obligatory on every fruit or love that is measured or saved. Such as wheat, raisins, and others, provided that it reaches the nisab, and among the things on which zakat is not obligatory are of these types: fruits such as apples, vegetables such as potatoes, cotton, grass, honey, and what comes out of the sea such as fish, but if it is intended for trade, then it is zakat on it, and zakat is required to be paid on it. That it be something that is measured or saved, that it reaches the quorum, which is five wasqs, and that the quorum must be owned at the time when zakat is due.
- Trade merchandise, which is everything that the owner prepares for the purpose of trade and profit, and Zakat is obligatory on them when the nisab is reached and one year has passed. Zakat is on the rent and not on the thing rented, and if the offers are on grain and fruits, then Zakat is given to grain, and everything is according to its type. As for industrial companies such as medicines, iron and others; Zakat is obligatory on the net profits of one-fourth of a tenth.
- Commercial companies; Such as imports, exports and others, so zakat is due on them, like trade offers in the capital and net profits in the amount of one-fourth of a tenth. As for the shares; If it is intended to continue owning, then zakat is due on profits only, and if it is for the purpose of trading and seeking profit, then zakat is due on all shares and profits that he owns, and zakat is like zakat on trade offers in the amount of a quarter of a tenth.
- Banknotes, which are treated as two currencies; Because it is considered a cash in its own right, and zakat is obligatory on it when it reaches the nisab of one of the two currencies, and when the year has passed on it, and zakat is obligatory on it, whether it is for trade or otherwise. One, and the result is the quorum of banknotes, and a quarter of a tenth is taken out of it, or he divides the amount that is with him by the number forty, and the result is the amount due in zakat, or he divides the money by the number ten, then divides the result by the number four, and the result is a quarter of a tenth and the amount The obligatory zakat, and as for the zakat on the monthly salary, it is better for a person if he saves something from him to pay zakat on what he owns of money at the turn of the year on the first quorum of his possession of it.
- The cattle, which are: camels, cows, and sheep. Zakat is obligatory on them if they are wet during one year or more, and if they reach the quorum, and each of them is given according to its sex, and it is paid from the middle of it, so it is not one of the best or one of the worst. It is zakatable as the merchandise of trade, but if it is for pearls and offspring and its owner feeds it, then it is not zakatable, and the minimum quorum for camels is five, cows are thirty, and sheep are forty.
- Minerals, which are all that is extracted from the earth of any value; Like rubies, gold, silver, and others, its zakat is paid after it has been refined and cast, and its zakat is a quarter of a tenth if it reaches the quorum, and the public is not stipulating that one year is required for it.
- Al-Rikaz, which is the burials of the Jahiliyyah, and one-fifth must be paid in it, whether it is a little or a lot, and it is not required for a nisab or a hawwal, and it is distributed like a fi’a, and the rest is for the one who finds it.
Types of Zakat people
Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, has imposed zakat in islam on seven categories, and they are as follows:
1- The poor: they are those who do not find their sufficiency and the sufficiency of their family. Poverty varies according to time and place. Because the price difference is different for them.
2- The needy: they are those who find half or more of their sufficiency, and the word faqir if it is singularly includes the needy, as well as vice versa, and if they are combined, each of them has a meaning.
3- Those who work on it: They are those in charge of collecting, preserving or distributing zakat funds, provided that they do not have a salary from the state, and everyone who works on zakat enters with them.
4- Their hearts are composed: and they are the masters who are obeyed in their people, and they may be Muslims or non-Muslims. The Muslims, if they are weak in faith, are given to encourage and strengthen them.
5- The debtors: they are the owners of debts – the debtors -, and the debtor may be in debt to himself; He is given from zakat on the condition that he is a Muslim, and he has a current debt that he cannot pay, and he may be in debt to someone else; Like someone who borrowed for the sake of security, then he is given from the zakat on the condition of his insolvency. This is to encourage the good and the known.
6- For the sake of God: they are the invaders and the mujahideen, and they are given from zakat on the condition that they do not have a salary, or they have a salary that is not enough for them, and they are given what suffices them to prepare for the invasion, and this includes the callers to God – Glory be to Him – and those who seek knowledge; He is given from zakat if he is poor to perform Hajj.
7- Ibn al-Sabeel: He is the traveler who has been cut off from his country and his money, and he does not have enough money to reach them, and a person who is in his country and wants to travel for the sake of obedience or interest and does not have money for that enters this bank.
Amounts of zakat in islam
God – Glory be to Him – made the amount of zakat in islam and the method of calculating it according to the fatigue of the thing; In the fifth ore, i.e. 20%; Because it is without fatigue, and if there is fatigue on one side, then there is a tenth of it, which is half a fifth, i.e. 10%, and it is the crops and fruits that are irrigated without cost. In seeding and watering, and what is a lot of fatigue throughout the year, such as money and trade, it contains a quarter of a tenth, that is, 2.5%. As for their amounts in detail, they are as follows:
- The prices, which are gold, silver and banknotes, and the amount of zakat on them is one-fourth of a tenth when it reaches the nisab and a year has passed on it.
- Cattle: They are camels, cows, and sheep. The quorum of sheep is forty sheep, and zakat is 40-120 sheep, and 121-200 sheep, then for every hundred sheep. As for the quorum of cows, it is thirty cows, and Zakat is paid from 30-39 to sell or sell; She is the one who has completed the year from her age, and from 40-59 years old; She is the one who has completed two years of age, then every thirty she sells, and every forty old woman. 24 four sheep. and from 25-35 in which a girl is in labor; She is the one who completed the year of her age, then from 36-45, in which there is a daughter of Laboun; And she is the one who has completed two years of age, then from 46-60, for which she is entitled; She reached the age of three, then from 61-75, and she has a stump; She is the one who has reached the age of four, and from 76-90 years of age, from 91-120 years, and then every forty years, a daughter of Laboun is added, and for every fifty years, zakat is taken from females, and it is not permissible to mention it except in cows, or if the quorum is It’s all male.
- Zakat on what is outside the land, and it is obligatory on everything that is measured and saved when it reaches the nisab, which in contemporary Orzan is approximately 624 kilograms. As rainwater, and half a tenth of what is irrigated with water in which there is a cost; Like wells water, and three-quarters of a tenth if half of the year is irrigated at cost, and the other half at no cost.
- The ore, which is the burial ground, must contain one-fifth
Trade merchandise, which is what is prepared for the sake of trade, and zakat is due on it when it reaches the nisab, and a year has passed on it, and a quarter of a tenth is taken out of its entire value.